Preheat the oven to 180C/350F. Line a 12-count muffin tray with muffin liners and set aside.
In a large mixing bowl, combine your flour, cocoa powder, sugar, baking soda and salt, and mix well.
Form 3 wells in the dry mixture. In each well, add the vinegar, vanilla extract and oil. Mix well, until combined. Add the water and mix until combined.
Distribute the cupcake batter evenly amongst the muffin tins, approximately 2/3 full. Bake the cupcakes for 15-17 minutes, or until a skewer comes out just clean.
Remove from the oven and let cool in the pan for 10 minutes, before transferring to a wire rack until cooled completely.
* All-purpose flour, white whole-wheat flour, and gluten-free flour can be used.** White sugar, brown sugar, coconut palm sugar, and a sugar free granulated sweetener will work.*** Apple cider vinegar and lemon juice can replace the white vinegar
TO STORE: Leftover cupcakes should be stored in the fridge, in a sealable container or on a plate, covered in plastic wrap. They will keep for at least 5 days.
TO FREEZE: Freeze leftover cupcakes in a ziplock bag and keep frozen in the freezer. They will keep well frozen for up to 6 months.